NetBSD has a FAQ for networking that outlines how to do Networking with a gateway not on the local subnet, unfortunately the recipe that they provide doesn't actually work "in the real world." The route command they provide does not make the network stack send an ARP who-has for the IP address and requires that you statically set the MAC address of the gateway.
I figured out a work-around for this, based on some insight from people on the NetBSD tech-talk mailing list. This allows you to use NetBSD as a guest operating system on providers such as OVH and Hetzner:
# ifconfig fxp0 inet 10.0.0.1
# route add -net 192.168.0.1/32 -cloning -link fxp0 -iface
# route add default -ifa 10.0.0.1 192.168.0.1
The trick was to specify use route cloning, and use a net definition instead of a host definition. Now NetBSD will send an ARP who-has request for the gateway IP address.
To supplement the OVH bridge client guide that is available on their Wiki, it would fit into the following template:
# ifconfig fxp0 inet Fail.over.IP netmask 255.255.255.255 broadcast Fail.over.IP
# route add -net Your.Server.IP.254/32 -cloning -link fxp0 -iface
# route add default -ifa Fail.over.IP Your.Server.IP.254
This should allow you to use NetBSD as a guest and not get blocked by OVH robots that check for too many ARP requests.
In light of the recently published article on Quick Blind TCP Connection Spoofing with SYN Cookies, I wanted to see what operating systems and distributions have Syncookies enabled by default.
|Ubuntu Linux 12.04
|Debian Linux 6
|Debian Linux 7
I'm not sure that turning off Syncookies is the best idea, due to the potential DoS effects from disabling them – applications should use something besides IP addresses for authentication.
I recently migrated from VMware ESXi to Linux KVM, where I was using PCI Passthrough under VMware ESXi to pass through an Intel AHCI SATA controller to a guest. I implemented the same setup by enabling IOMMU on the KVM host, and passed through the AHCI SATA controller to the guest.
After a week or two, I started seeing the following messages in /var/log/syslog on the guest:
Aug 6 13:25:28 yama kernel: [78351.258573] XFS (md0): Corruption detected. Unmount and run xfs_repair
Aug 6 13:25:28 yama kernel: [78351.259102] XFS (md0): Corruption detected. Unmount and run xfs_repair
Aug 6 13:25:28 yama kernel: [78351.259616] XFS (md0): metadata I/O error: block 0x31214bd0 ("xfs_trans_read_buf_map") error 117 numblks 16
Aug 6 13:25:28 yama kernel: [78351.260203] XFS (md0): xfs_imap_to_bp: xfs_trans_read_buf() returned error 117.
Aug 6 13:29:10 yama kernel: [78573.533933] XFS (md0): Invalid inode number 0xfeffffffffffffff
Aug 6 13:29:10 yama kernel: [78573.533940] XFS (md0): Internal error xfs_dir_ino_validate at line 160 of file /build/buildd/linux-lts-raring-3.8.0/fs/xfs/xfs_dir2.c. Caller 0xffffffffa045cd96
Aug 6 13:29:10 yama kernel: [78573.533940]
Aug 6 13:29:10 yama kernel: [78573.538440] Pid: 1723, comm: kworker/0:1H Tainted: GF 3.8.0-27-generic #40~precise3-Ubuntu
Aug 6 13:29:10 yama kernel: [78573.538443] Call Trace:
Aug 6 13:29:10 yama kernel: [78573.538496] [<ffffffffa042316f>] xfs_error_report+0x3f/0x50 [xfs]
Aug 6 13:29:10 yama kernel: [78573.538537] [<ffffffffa045cd96>] ? __xfs_dir2_data_check+0x1e6/0x4a0 [xfs]
Aug 6 13:29:10 yama kernel: [78573.538560] [<ffffffffa045a150>] xfs_dir_ino_validate+0x90/0xe0 [xfs]
Aug 6 13:29:10 yama kernel: [78573.538579] [<ffffffffa045cd96>] __xfs_dir2_data_check+0x1e6/0x4a0 [xfs]
Aug 6 13:29:10 yama kernel: [78573.538598] [<ffffffffa045d0ca>] xfs_dir2_data_verify+0x7a/0x90 [xfs]
Aug 6 13:29:10 yama kernel: [78573.538637] [<ffffffff810135aa>] ? __switch_to+0x12a/0x4a0
Aug 6 13:29:10 yama kernel: [78573.538664] [<ffffffffa045d195>] xfs_dir2_data_reada_verify+0x95/0xa0 [xfs]
Aug 6 13:29:10 yama kernel: [78573.538675] [<ffffffff8108e2aa>] ? finish_task_switch+0x4a/0xf0
Aug 6 13:29:10 yama kernel: [78573.538697] [<ffffffffa042133f>] xfs_buf_iodone_work+0x3f/0xa0 [xfs]
Aug 6 13:29:10 yama kernel: [78573.538706] [<ffffffff81078c21>] process_one_work+0x141/0x490
Aug 6 13:29:10 yama kernel: [78573.538710] [<ffffffff81079be8>] worker_thread+0x168/0x400
Aug 6 13:29:10 yama kernel: [78573.538714] [<ffffffff81079a80>] ? manage_workers+0x120/0x120
Aug 6 13:29:10 yama kernel: [78573.538721] [<ffffffff8107f0f0>] kthread+0xc0/0xd0
Aug 6 13:29:10 yama kernel: [78573.538726] [<ffffffff8107f030>] ? flush_kthread_worker+0xb0/0xb0
Aug 6 13:29:10 yama kernel: [78573.538730] [<ffffffff816fc6ac>] ret_from_fork+0x7c/0xb0
Aug 6 13:29:10 yama kernel: [78573.538735] [<ffffffff8107f030>] ? flush_kthread_worker+0xb0/0xb0
I initially used xfs_repair on the file system, thinking that the issue was caused by a number of power failures that happened when the machine was running ESXi. However, this did not resolve the issue and made the problem worse. Eventually I decided that I wanted to scrap the file system, and pulled a drive from the array to backup the data and re-create the file system.
The drive that I pulled from the array for backups started showing the same issues with XFS corruption.
After further investigation via trial-and-error, I determined that KVM PCI Passthrough was causing the issue and decided to just pass through an array to the guest using vrtio-block – This solved the corruption problem and I haven't had any issues (knock on wood) since!